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PT. ASHOK KASHYAP I have been in active practice for about 53 years and have a unique distinction of having been consulted by Hon‘ble Courts from several states in India, almost by every Nationalised Bank, Various Foreign Banks from several parts of India including foreign clients from abroad. I have been on the panel of several Nationalised and foreign Banks and Govt. Undertakings. I have appeared in numerous departmental enquiries conducted by several Banks, Govt. Undertakings & have given evidence before several Hon‘ble courts all over India (about 17 states) including Central Vigilance Commission, DRTS, TADA Courts, Special CIB Courts including Dept. Enquiries pertaining to various Banks & Government Undertakings.

This site may not be construed as a mere solo celeberation of a single individual but a glorious triumphant recognition of the collective services of many more other famous experts attached to this establishment in the past.


Our office occupies a high pedestal in terms of reputation and its sustenance and is probably the oldest existing office of the ― "Document Examiners" in the World today. It has produced several Experts of eminence in this profession. It was established way back in 1935 by my revered late Father Pt. Ugrasen Kashyap, who was a versatile genius, a colossal in the field, an erudite scholar, an educationist and an original thinker. He utilized his prodigy in editing various acclaimed journals on document examination in pre-independent era dominated by the colonial prejudice not very conducive for the growth of budding native experts those days in this field due to the prejudiced ourlook and keen patronage granted to the Anglo Indian Experts by the Bench. He in the midst of a stiff opposition won laurels all over India and Abroad having earned recognition for his precocity, brilliance, incorruptibility and accolade from such colossals as A.S. Osborn (Author of Several World Famous Books on the subject of questioned document examination) and Mr. Ordway Hilton, a modern giant in this field. He practised between the years 1935 to 1982 at this office.


"Rome was not built in a day" is a well known adage applied quite apposite in a proper context to our establishment. As I nostalgically contemplate about this historical establishment, my thoughts go embalmed with deepest gratitude to my elder brothers and all those whose contributions in shaping the destiny of this office are in no measure insignificant.

It is a cruel travesty of destiny exploited by the bedlam of history that the vibrantly glorious contributions of notable deserving men may be lost under the rubble of stony silence of the past. My endeavors are to retrieve and resurrect them for the benefit of the present generation and the posterity.


My opinion & personal evidence before Hon‘ble High Court of Singapore were graciously accepted in 1997. Our office has been receiving Original documents for opinion from Hon‘ble Civil, Criminal & Revenue Courts, Banks, Govt. Undertakings, DRTs, Police Departments & Private Parties from all over India & abroad for about 81 years since 1935.

I have examined thousands of contested documents including disputed cheques, stolen DDs, Cheques, Withdrawals, tempered and altered ledger sheets, loan papers, R.T.C.S., vouchers, applications, Marriage certificates, Letters of registration, Election Petitions, partition deeds, rent deeds, love letters, threatening letters, suicide notes, wills, promissory notes and Sale Deeds etc. received from various Courts, Banks, Police Departments, Govt. Undertakings and Private Parties among others in various scripts.

I belong to an illustrious family of experts & our office, the oldest in India is running since 1935. I received my initial training from my father Pt. Ugrasen Kashyap who was a stalwart in this profession for about 51 years. I also received my training from 3 other Senior Experts including Mr. V.N. Sehgal, Ex. Director, Central Forensic Science Laboratory Govt. of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, CBI. Further, I received my advanced training from International Association for Identification (IAI) at Orlando and Metro Dade Police Training Department at Miami (USA). I was also a delegate at the 150th anniversary of the Royal Microscopical Society, London in 1989 and at the International Association for Identification Conference, Orlando (USA) in 1983. I went on a training and lecture tour abroad and also visited several important Laboratories like the Ontario Provincial Police Laboratory Documents‘ Section at the Centre of Forensic Sciences, Toronto (Canada) on two successive occasions to acquire the latest knowledge in the techniques of detection of forgeries and development of latent fingerprints. I was appointed as Regional Vice President for India in recognition of my professional standing by International Association for Identification (USA) in 1983. I also visited on invitation various renowned Law Firms for examination of questioned documents at Singapore, Kualalumpur & Kuching (Malaysia).

I am a Life Member of the International Association for Identification (USA), an Ex-Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society (Oxford) and Ex-Member of the Canadian Identification Society (Canada). I am also a Life Member of several prestigious organizations like the Forensic Science Society of India, Indian Academy of Forensic Science and Indian Society of Criminology.


I am primarily a Senior Court Consultant and have received original documents for opinion from almost every state of the country and have appeared for evidence before Hon‘ble Courts in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, MP, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand etc. for opinion and have been regularly appearing for evidence in Courts for last 50 years. I have the honor to state with utmost humility that I am perhaps one of the Experts whose reports have been directly submitted before Hon‘ble Supreme Court of India & whose opinion & evidence have been accepted by Singapore High Court. Besides several Banks, Courts & several Government Undertakings. Our office has been consulted by various Ministries (MPs/MLAs), Vigilance Departments, Firms, Airlines, Universities, Detective Agencies, Embassies, private parties & foreign countries including Bangladesh, Dubai, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nepal, Nigeria, Singapore, Sri Lanka, USA & UK among others besides High Profile Clients all over India and abroad.

Our office during the last 80 years has rendered yeomen services in administration of justice to the Bench & the Bar, Govt. of India‘s Ministry of Home Affairs, Special Police Establishment, Anticorruption Department of Northern Railway, Delhi Police, Railway Police, Railway Board, Municipal Corporations, Majority of Nationalised & Foreign Banks, and several other agencies among others.

We reaffirm our pledge to rededicate ourselves to impartial, honest and prompt services and our firm commitment to deliver professional services (Opinions) latest within a week of the receipt of documents to assist the Hon‘ble Courts & other agencies in the prompt administration of Justice. Our opinions (u/s 45 Evidence Act) can be filed before Hon‘ble Courts in Civil, Criminal & revenue cases and also a FIR can be lodged on their basis and are universally acceptable.


As I look with nostalgia drifting into the distant hoary legendary, historical & fabulous past of this office with a deep sense of pride, wonder and satisfaction. I solemnly acknowledge with the deepest gratitude and humility without the least braggadacio, the profuse generosity and the charitable response of our benevolent patrons worldwide lavished in a substantial measure keeping the fire in our dogged sprit for conscientious service kindled and un-extinguished since the inception of this establishment. This proverbial munificence has indeed kept our office blessed & alive all these long years.

Sections A & B are being dedicated with reverence & as a mark of gratitude, tribute and respect to the holy memory of my late father Pt. Ugrasen Kashyap (Founder of this establishment) & my elder brother Late Shri Brij Bhushan Kashyap (of Jaipur office), both eminent Handwriting Experts (authoritatively known as Precursors to this profession during post-independence era & collectively known as Kashyap family of Experts) whose untiring efforts have been responsible to bring this establishment to the zenith of glory.

Some rare photographs, important references from past Court Judgments & correspondence hinting at their association with some of the most important luminaries of the past and monumental appreciations are the hallmarks to keep the contemporary generation and the posterity suitably well informed about the course of the long meandering professional journey that has assiduously continued to justifiably pronounce Pt. Ugrasen Kashyap truly a genius and this institution as a "Mecca" in this profession in the annals of history. Their concerted effort has bequeathed a unique & rich synthesis of exemplary legacy that shall be cherished for all the times immemorial by the posterity & all those interested in & connected with this discipleine of Forensic Science. Some of Sh. Brij Bhushan Kashyap‘s innovations in the methodology including the emphasis on the utility of "Juxtaposition Charts" in Expert testimony & enhancing the credentials by accumulating systematically the presentation of Judicial opinions were meant to greatly improve and augment the quality of performance of the professionals.

It is indeed mindboggling to conceive as to how a person from a distinctly humble background (our father) without any connections could wade through the vicissitudes and the turbulence of the odyssey singlehandedly to climb up on to the top of the ladder of unique phenomenal success and assume a formidably invincible stature in the attainment of which best of the human endeavor and the benediction of divinity both in a confluence appear to have had a glorified contribution.

If speech is silver and silence is gold and also if mute pictures from archives convey more brilliantly and with greater sensivity than the words, the laurels brought by the efforts of Sh. B. B. Kashyap cannot be considered in isolation because of his association with this office under the able stewardship of Late Pt. Ugrasen Kashyap leaving behind a trail of immense glory.

Jeff Moy, Private Investigator, Alachua, Florida-32615 (USA) vide e-mail dated 29/06/2012 says, "...I have had the pleasure of reviewing your credentials (on website) and they are sterling as compared to others I have seen in India"…....................................................... Glorious Foreign Complement

Mr. Nicholas S Law, Director General, International Biographical Centre, Cambridge (UK) vide Letter dated 13/02/2015, says "….I am delighted to inform you that your name has been put forward to receive – entirely through merit – an Honorary Doctorate of Letters from the International Biographical centre of Cambridge (UK). Only a select few have been honoured with this prestigious Doctorate and it reflects an ultimate recognition of your lifetime achievements….. I consider that the IBC is well qualified to offer you an Honorary Doctorate of Letters (HonDL)….."


Gems from Archives

      Commemorative issue celebrating 80th Anniversary of our DELHI OFFICE
Photographs of
Handwriting & Fingerprint Expert (1935-1982)

Handwriting & Fingerprint Expert, Jaipur (1958-2006)
Internationally renowned Handwriting Expert with 56 years’ experience
(Associated with Delhi Main Office during 1950-1958)

Editor & Associate Editors respectively of Quarterly Magazine “Documents Examiner & Scientific Detective”

Published from Guntur (A.P.) at our South Indian branch office (1956-1958)

It is a proud privilege that our office commemorates its 80 years since its inception in 1935 and I enter into 50th year of my professional career. Obviously, on introspection we find what a herculean effort has been put in by its founders. It has produced several colossals and it is high time and befitting to pay our respects to them commensurate with their yeomen services and contributions. One of the brightest jewels/luminaries in the crown of this office that shone with luminescence in the firmament of galaxy of this profession was Late Prof. Brij Bhushan Kashyap, one of my elder brothers who practised at this Delhi Head office under the able stewardship of our legendry father Late Pt. Ugrasen Kashyap between the years 1950-1958 and carved out a niche for himself and later on moving to set up his own world renowned independent establishment. He practised at Jaipur (Raj.) during the years 1958-2006 having an all India and International practice. He had a penchant for a prolific collection of judicial pronouncements (Judgments) from allover India in those cases, in which his evidence had been recorded in order to satisfy his inquisitiveness about the assessment of his ability and performance. I proudly represent a family of handwriting experts known popularly & proverbially for several decades as "Kashyap Experts".

It will be a treacherous and unpardonable affront to the sacred memory and to the legacy of the founders of this establishment, if adequate proof is not appropriately presented to highlight their wizardry underlying the accomplishments of their spectacular achievements by way of judicial appreciation.

This section B is exclusively dedicated as a homage to their memory and consists of rare photographs taken out of our Archives that kindle a feeling of nostalgia intended to acquaint with the history of his associations with contemporary great men of fame who most generously and graciously condescended to oblige him with their kind audience and recognition for his varied in-depth contributions to this subject.

The bulletins independently edited by Sh. B. B. Kashyap represent a compendium of judgments reflecting a mine of information on various facets of expert testimony flowing out of razorsharp surgical judicial analysis establishing a unique voracity and propensity on the part of the person whose name shall indeed go down as an iconoclast in the annals of history of legal jurisprudence. They are available as historical evidence for inspection in our library.

Now reverting to the academic aspects and various technalities involved to be appreciated from the nature and quality of judgments are succinctly summed up for the comprehension of our worthy readers :

  1. The adage "the proof of the pudding is in its eating" applies appropriately to the glory of our establishment which lies in the nature and dimension of the contributions made by the enthusiastic efforts of experts who had managed this office and laid its sound foundations in the past attracting a national and international attention.
  2. Some of the judgments out of his copious collections, constitute limited glimpses (which he managed to accumulate with assiduity by extensively travelling allover India and abroad for a major part of his professional career) contain an academic and historical point of view. They contain narrations of rare brilliance, insight of profundity with deep understanding, a critical and mature judicial analysis which all impart a truly magical web reflecting not only his versatility but also providing a lot of material for research to an earnest student for emulation. The contents of these judgments from various states of India and Foreign countries in my humble opinion considered cumulatively not only go to produce a vision suggesting the enhancement of the professional status of Handwriting Experts, but also are a great lesson and an eye-opener in the art of presenting testimony eliciting appreciation/approbation through convincing the Hon‘ble courts.
  3. The Judicial Unanimity in appreciating the analysis and recognizing his authority over the subject in various state of India and abroad.
  4. His mature, impressive and comprehensive opinions based on cogent reasonings in his reports.
  5. His religious dependence for the purpose of comparison on a no. of photo enlargements and Juxtaposition Charts.
  6. His wide professional patronage through bench and bar throughout India and abroad.



Today I had an opportunity of visiting the laboratory of Mr. Ugrasen Kashyap B.A. LL.B. Document Expert. I was highly pleased at the methods of detection of forgery which he explained me. Within a very short time of about a year, this expert has got a reputation of being honest and impartial expert. He has appeared in a few cases in my court and his opinions and methods of arriving at these opinions attracted me to his laboratory, in my opinion, his services will prove very useful in detecting forgery. I wish him success…….".

Dt.: 26/06/1936 (Sd.) BALK RAM P.C.S
Judge, Small Cause Court, Delhi

  1. Extracts from Court Judgments

In the Court of Sh. Bawa Niranjan Singh B.A., P.C.S., Subordinate Judge 1st Class, Gurgaon

Civil Suit No. 1407 of 1934

Sita Ram son of Bensidhar, Mahajan through Mutsaddi Lal Mukhtar-i-am Farukhnagar, Distt. Gurgaon, Plaintiff


Shib Dayal and Ganga Sajai sons of Kidar Nath of Mauza Farrukhnagar Tehsil and District Gurgaon, defendants. Claim for recovery of Rs. ______ on account of rent.

“… Now as to the Expert evidence, it is true that defendants have produced the Government Expert and the expert produced by the plaintiff is comparatively younger in this procession. But the evidence of the former cannot be accepted simply because he happens to be the Government Expert, and that of the latter cannot be rejected, because he is a private expert. Honest Experts, who are freshers in this profession, are bound to take more pains, and devote more time, and therefore are likely to arrive at correct conclusions.

The Govt. Expert, with all his experience did not find anything suspicious about the signature or stamp on the contested receipt Ex. D6. I have examined both with the aid of the magnifying glass, and I am in full agreement with the plaintiff’s expert that the stamp on Ex.D6 was removed from some other documents and put on this……

I have therefore no hesitation to agree with plaintiff’s expert (Ugrasen Kashyap) and hold that the receipt Ex.D6, is not genuine. Consequently I decide this issue against the defendants”.

  Sd. Bawa NIranjan Singh
S.J. 1st Class
   More than 7 decades old judgment...............Govt. Expert Disbelieved

  2. Extracts from Court Judgments

In the court of Sh. Atta Ullah Qureshi, B.A. (Hons) L.L.B., P.C.S., Sub Judge, Batala, District Gurdaspur (Punjab) Civil Suit NO. 506 of 1935 decided on 28th April, 36

"In this case, the thumb impression of the defendant on the pronote in suit was sent to the Phillaur Bureau for comparison, but the report was that the same is undecipherable. After the receipt of this report, my learned predecessor vide his order dated 24/10/35 sent the thumb impression for comparison to one. Mr. Urga Sen, an expert at Delhi. The report of this expert alongwith its photo enlargements has been received by this court and the expert has also been examined on interrogatories. In exhibit C.I., the expert has given his reasons in arriving at the conclusion that the pronote in suit is thumb-marked by the defendant and these reasons appeared to be very strong. The expert has clearly stated that there appears to be no dissimilarity in the thumb-impression on the pronote in suit and the one obtained in court. This being so, it appears to me, that the plaintiff has succeeded in establishing that the pronote in suit was executed by the defendant. There being no rebuttal worth the name, I decide the issue in favor of the plaintiff."

    Sd. Atta Ullah Qureshi
Sub-Judge-III, Class Batala, Punjab
…………Opinion believed in preference to Punjab Govt. Fingerprint Bureau‘s opinion.
Bharat Ratna Mahamana Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, Vice Chancellor, Benares Hindu University, vide his appreciation dated 22/02/1928 says, "…..Ugrasen was one of our best students. The principal of the college has very high opinion of his merits. I have no doubt that he will prove successful as a headmaster and therefore I strongly recommend him for such an appointment" .....Glorious Tribute

Note: Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya was the Founder of the Baneras Hindu University, an erudite vedanta scholar and a nationalist who attended the Round Table Conference at London with Mahatma Gandhiji around 1922.

Extracts from Memorable Letters                               Glimpses from Archives
  1. Sweet & Maxwell, Ltd., Law Publishers (Estb.1800) 2 & 3, Chancery Lane, London, W.C.-2 (U.K.) vide letter dated 06/11/1939 says, "…..Please therefore send us a set of the parts (of Document Disputes) issued to date….. On receipt of your bill for the subscription due, we will send you a remittance."
  2. The Editor, The Indian Police Gazette, Park Street, Calcutta, vide letter dated 02/08/1939 says, "…..We thank you for your letter of the 28th July and for the three copies of ―Document Disputes‖ you sent us….. We shall be glad to get a specially contributed article from your pen."
  3. Mr. Ordway Hilton, Associate Editor, The American Journal of Police Science, Northwestern University, School of Law, Chicago, Illinois (U.S.A) vide letter dated 16/05/1940 says, "….I personally have read with interest the copies which accompanied your letter. Consequently I should like to enter a subscription with you, commencing with the issue which followed the December, 1939 number (Vol. 1, No. 7)….. My copies of "Document Disputes" should be sent to me C/o the Chicago Police Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, South State Street, Chicago, Illinois USA".
  1. Mr. Nick Kessler, Kessler Book Service, West 38th Place, Los Angeles, California (USA) vide letter dated 21/10/1940 says, "…..We have had a very nice acknowledgement from Mr. Osborn for the set we sent him, with your card enclosed of "Document Disputes" and he has requested that a subscription be sent him. You are aware of his outstanding position in the field of document examination and I would strongly urge that you place his name on your subscription list and send him copies as issued with your compliments." ………………Historical and Monumental Observation
  2. Editor, Identification News, Vol. 7, No. 4 International Association for Identification (USA) in April-May, 1957 issue says, “.......................Our congratulations to Ugrasen Kashyap, Examiner of Questioned Documents, Andhra State, India. He is editor and publisher of a monthly magazine, “The Document Examiner and Scientific Detective”. The copy which we received was most interesting, the articles are well written and showing the enormous amount of study and effort that he has put into his life's work. We wish him all success with his new venture” ……………………………………………………Congratulatory Message
  1. Lt. Simon B. Reyes, Jr., Republic of the Philippines Province of Rizal Municipality of SAN JUAN Police Department vide letter dated 26/12/1958 says, "In several issues of the "JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL LAW, CRIMINOLOGY and POLICE SCIENCE" (USA), your magazine has been mentioned and quoted upon relative to some valuable articles featured therein".
  2. Mr. Po Sai, Advocate, Higher Grade Pleader, Pyinmana, Burma vide letter dated 14/02/1956 says, "….. Believing that you are still publishing your esteemed monthly magazine on Document Disputes, will you kindly send me 1954 & 1955 volumes per V.P.P.?."
  3. Mr. M.C. Ghelani, Near Police Station, Advocate, Mbale, Uganda (S.E.Africa) vide letter dated 29/12/1954 says, "…..It is my intention to refer to you one document to ascertain the 'age' of Ink of the signature of the signatory thereto)….."
  1. Shri Kasri Chand, Superintendent of Police, City Delhi, vide letter dated 14/02/1956 says, "This is to certify that Shri Ugrasen Kashayap and Shri Brij Bhushan Kashyap, Examiners of Questioned Documents of Kashmere Gate Delhi are working as Consultant Experts for this department."
  2. Mr. N.N. Moitra, Superintendent of Police, SPE(E), New Delhi vide letter dated 18/08/1955 says, "…..I write to say that the Inspector General of Police, Special Police Establishment, New Delhi‘s orders have been received alongwith the sanction of the Government of India to get the five cases examined by you."
  3. Shri A.K. Kaul, IPS, Asstt. Inspector General, Railway Police, Ambala Cantt., Punjab, vide letter dated 08/04/1955 says, "...This to to certify that Shri Ugrasen Kashyap & Brij Bhushan Kashyap, Examiners of Questioned Documents, have been known to me for about 5 years. I have availed of their services on more than one occasion. I have found their work satisfactory in all respects. They are entirely dependable. I wish them all success".
Thakur Mahendra Pal Singh, Under Secretary to the Government of India, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Delhi Special Police Establishment, vide letter dated 29/07/1955 says, "I am directed to convey the sanction of the President to the incurring of an expenditure not exceeding …..on account of fees to be paid to the Private Handwriting Expert, Shri Ugrasen Kashyap of Delhi for examination of certain documents in SPE cases No…….."
Shri P.K. Mathur, Anticorruption Officer, Northern Railway, H. Q. Office, New Delhi vide his letter dated 28/05/1955 says, "...Messrs Ugarsen Kashyap and Brij Bhushan Kashyap, Handwriting Experts, have been known to me for many years. ...I have found their work very satisfactory in all respects. They are entirely dependable and I wish them all success".

   Sri Ch. Charan Singh, Minister of Agriculture (UP) and Ex-Prime Minister of India vide letter dated 31/03/53 says, “…..This is to certify that Sri Ugrasen Kashyap, Examiner of Questioned Documents, Delhi is personally known to me for a number of years. He has given me opinion as a documents expert in several of my cases at the time when I was practicing as a lawyer and found his work quite satisfactory. He should do well on any job of trust and responsibility.”


  Hon‘ble Shri M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar (Former Speaker Lok Sabha & Governor of Bihar) says, "… Sri Ugrasen Kashyap & Brij Bhushan Kashyap are running the leading office of Handwriting Experts (at Kashmeregate, Delhi) …They enjoy an excellent reputation of ability, strict integrity and impartiality. I strongly recommend them to the legal profession".

Note: Shri M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar was a well known brilliant advocate from Chittoor Bar Association (A.P.) Near Temple Town of Tirupathi and later rose to political prominence through the important political positions held.

Sri Ram Avatar Gupta, Advocate, Choura Rasta, Jaipur, vide letter dated 15/03/1953 says, "... I know Shri Ugrasen Kashyap, the Handwriting Expert of Delhi for last 15 years. ...I have dealt with most of the leading experts of Delhi and found him the most reasonable and capable".
Shri Baburam Gupta, Member Vidhan Sabha, Lucknow vide letter dated 31/03/1953 says, "...This is to certify that I have known Shri Ugrasen Kashyap, Examiner of Questioned Documents of Delhi for the last 18 years. ... He is a person of outstanding merit. For scientific knowledge, impartiality and incorruptibility, impressiveness in giving evidence and command on language, he is unrivalled in India. ... I believe that he could very rightly be trusted for any case and any public duties. He would be an asset to any state entrusting him with document investigation work".
Shri Mulchand Dube, Member of the House of the People, New Delhi vide letter dated 06/04/1953 says, "...I found him to be an expert of merit and what is more, a man of integrity. ...He cross examined another expert produced by the other side and I found his cross examination simply wonderful".
Mr. Wahiduddin Ahmed, Advocate, High Court, Lahore residing at Ballimaran, Delhi vide letter 19/05/1940 says, "... Mr. Uggar Sain Kashyap Handwriting Expert has given opinion in some of the cases conducted by me in the Delhi Court. His opinion(s) have been very useful to the Courts and were accept as correct. ...He has established good reputation in Delhi for integrity, impartiality and fair dealings".

  Rai Bahadur Ram Kishore, Advocate, High Court and Notary Public (President Bar Association Delhi) vide letter dated 12/01/1940 says, "...I have known Mr. Ugra Sen Kashyap, Handwriting Expert of Delhi as a pupil at the University Law Hall since 1926 and afterwards as a professional Expert in Questioned Documents. ...I am glad to say that I have found his work carefully prepared and his opinion reliable".

Note: Rai Bahadur Ram Kishore was the Dean of Law Faculty, Delhi, a prodigy, an epitome of scholarly traditions, a legal luminary and a colossal among the contemporary Advocates, had a charismatic bearing, a martinet, extraordinary persuasive magical power in his oratory and arguments, a man of sterling character as a Professional and the President of Delhi Bar Association with very high political connections.



”If the Law has made you a witness, remain a man of Science. You have no victim to avenge, no guilty or innocent person to ruin or save. You must bear witness within the limits of the Science.” —BROUARDEL
Reminiscences from the Golden Era                        (Vignettes from the Past)
Down the memory Lane

In this Photograph (taken at Camera Club, Guntur(A.P.) in 1956) Mr. Ugrasen Kashyap (right), our Editor the Document Examiner & Scientific Detective, is seen explaining to Hon'ble Shri C.M. Trivedi, the Governor of Andhra State and the Lady Trivedi how various kinds of forgeries are made and detected. In the background are the A.D.C. and Military Secretary of the Governor and Mr. N. Bhagwan Das the collector of Guntur (behind the Governor) and other officers.

Expert Ugrasen Kashyap Photomicrographing a document in his laboratory at Delhi in 1935.

In this Photograph (taken at Camera Club, Guntur(A.P.) in 1956) Mr. Ugrasen Kashyap (right), our Editor the Document Examiner & Scientific Detective, is seen explaining to Hon'ble Shri C.M. Trivedi, the Governor of Andhra State and the Lady Trivedi how various kinds of forgeries are made and detected. In the background are the A.D.C. and Military Secretary of the Governor and Mr. N. Bhagwan Das the collector of Guntur (behind the Governor) and other officers.

Shri B.B. Kashyap (left) with Shri C. Rajagopalachari (right) Formerly Governor General of India (soon after Independence)

Hon‘ble Mr. Justice Mehar Chand Mahajan (right), Chief Justice, Supreme Court of India, receiving some issues of the quarterly magazine Document Examiner & Scientific Detective from its Associate Editor, Shri B.B. Kashyap (left), Examiner of Questioned Documents.

Hon‘ble Shri K. Subba Rao (right), Chief Justice, Supreme Court of India, listening to the foreign tour impressions of Prof. B. B. Kashyap (left) of 16 countries of Europe, Africa & Asia. Kashyap had gone abroad to attend two International Conferences of Document Experts & Criminologists, advanced study & lecture tour.

Hon‘ble Shri K.N. Wanchoo (left), Chief Justice, Supreme Court of India, watchin the demonstration of the special technique of Enlarged Photographic Juxtaposed Comparative Study Rolled Plastic Charts, developed by Prof. B.B. Kashyap (right), for detection of forgeries & identification of handwritings and fingerprints etc.

Zakir Hussain (right), President of India, seeing the special technique of Rolled Plastic Photo Charts for comparing handwritings etc., introduced by Prof. B.B. Kashyap (left). This technique has been accepted by the foreign Experts to be the most scientific, thorough and convenient method for demonstration of expert evidence.

Hon‘ble Shri V.V. Giri (right), President of India, watching the special technique of Rolled Plastic Photo Charts for comparing handwritings etc., introduced by Prof. B.B. Kashyap (left). This technique has been accepted by foreign experts to be the most scientific, thorough and convenient method for demonstration of expert evidence.

Prof. B.B. Kashyap (right) at PARIS, explaining his special technique of ‗Enlarged Photographic Juxtaposed Comparative Study Rolled Plastic Charts‘ to Prof. P.F. Ceccaldi (left), Chief of the Central Government Forensic Science Laboratory of the Ministry of Justice in France.

Prof. B.B. Kashyap (left) at KATHMANDU (NEPAL) with the Hon‘ble Mr. Justice Bhagwati Prasad (right), Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Nepal during his recent lecture tour. Kashyap‘s professional services were utilised by the Nepal Supreme Court also.

shok Kashyap (left) and Prof. B.B. Kashyap (right), Handwriting Experts with Hon‘ble Shri P.V. Narsimha Rao (middle), Foreign Minister and Ex. Prime Minister of India

Prof. B.B. Kashyap (left) at LONDON with Rt. Hon‘ble Lord Justice Willmer (right) of England, who was the Chief Guest at the International Conference of Royal Microscopical Society which Kashyap attended (as a fellow) representing India, in July, 1966.

Prof. Brij Bhushan Kashyap (left), in HELSINKI (FINLAND) studying the photographs of fingerprint cases as explained by Mr. Pentti (right) Holm, Director Identification Burau of Helsinki Criminal Police, HELSINGIN POLISILAITORS.

1. Hon’ble Mr. Justice P.B. Gajendragadkar, J.
2. Hon’ble Mr. Justice K. Subba Rao, J.
3. Hon’ble Mr. Justice K. N. Wanchoo, J.
4. Hon’ble Mr. Justice J. C. Shah, J.
5. Hon’ble Mr. Justice Raghubar Dayal, J.
Case : C.A. No. 708/1962 (Decided on 18.09.1963), Babu Lal vs. State of U.P.
“In the opinion of the learned Munsif (Koil at Aligarh) Ex. A1 was a forged document and he decreed the suit of the plaintiffs (by accepting the expert opinion and evidence of P.W. Shri B.B. Kashyap, Handwriting & Fingerprint Expert, in preference to the expert opinion of D.W. Shri G.S.M.)………. In appeal to the learned Distt. Judge the finding that the agreement was not genuine was not challenged……… The Munsif held that… a complaint be filed against Babu Lal charging him with committing an offence under S. 471 read with S. 463 Indian Penal Code by using the agreement dated July 25, 1917, knowing or having reason to believe that it was a forged document. The order by trial court was confirmed in appeal by the District Judge, Aligarh and a revision application to the High Court of Allahabad challenging the order was dismissed. With special leave, Babu Lal has appealed to this Court….. The appeal fails and is dismissed…..”
…………Opinion of Sh. B.B. Kashyap accepted by Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in preference to other expert
  1. Hon’ble Mr. Justice K.G. Balakrishanan, Chief Justice of Himachal Pradesh High Court, Shimla (As Judge, Kerala High Court, Ernakulam, in S.A. 189/89-E, D.D. 8.6.90) says, “………..O.S. 70/81 was decreed by the trial court. The appeal court confirmed the decree…… These two letters were sent to a handwriting expert (Prof. B.B. Kashyap, Jaipur) and a report also was produced. This aspect also was considered by the court below. I find no reason to interfere with the findings of the court below (accepting the expert opinion of Prof. Kashyap) that the appellant agreed to pay the amount due to the plaintiff. The appeal is dismissed.”
    Note : Hon’ble Mr. Justice K.G. Balakrishanan Retd. as Chief Justice, Supreme Court of India.
  2. Hon’ble Mr. Justice E.S. Venkataramiah, Chief Justice, Supreme Court of India (as J., Karnataka High Court, Bangalore, in R.S.A. 373/77 & R.S.A. 432/77, D.D. 23.9.77) says, “………. A compromise petition is filed by the learned counsel for the appellants….. There is no impediment for making a decree in terms of the compromise….. The decree is passed in terms of the compromise…….”
    Note: Both the learned courts below had accepted the expert opinion of Prof. B.B. Kashyap.
  1. Hon’ble Mr. Justice R.B. Misra, Judge, Supreme Court of India (as Judge, Allahabad High Court, in S.A. 4019/1959, D.D. 8.11.71) says, “…. The courts below have rightly decreed that part of the claim of the plaintiffs (by relying on the expert opinion of Shri B.B. Kashyap) …….. The decree of the lower appellate Court in other respects stands intact.”
  2. Hon’ble Mr. Justice Chinnappa Reddy, Judge, Supreme Court of India (as Judge, A.P. High Court, Hyderabad, in F.A. 478/68, D.D. 22.8.72) says, “……. I agree that the signatures in Ex. A40 and Ex. A44 appear to be labored, carefully and consciously written while admitted signatures appear to be free and bold (as also opined by Prof. B.B. Kashyap, Jaipur). In the end, I agree with the lower court that Ex. 40 and Ex. 44 have not been proved to be genuine. The appeal is, therefore, dismissed.”
  3. Hon’ble Mr. Justice N.L. Untwalia, Judge, Supreme Court of India (as Chief Justice, Patna High Court, with Hon’ble Mr. Justice S.K. Jha, J. in L.P.A. Nos. 25 and 26 of 1968, D.D. 21.9.1973) says, “……. The learned Single Judge rightly held that the first appellate Court was justified in holding that the two documents were not forged (relying on the opinion of Prof. B.B. Kashyap). Appeals are dismissed.”
  4. Hon’ble Mr. Justice R.N. Misra, Judge, Supreme Court of India (as Chief Justice, Orissa High Court, Cuttak, with Hon’ble Mr. Justice P.K. Mohanti, J., in O.J.C.D.B. No. 909/1977, D.D. 15.2.79) says, “…The document was sent (by the High Court) to Prof. B.B. Kashyap (Jaipur) for comparison….. Our conclusion is supported by the expert opinion of Shri Kashyap…… The writ petition succeeds with costs.”
  5. Hon’ble Mr. Justice V. Khalid, Judge, Supreme Court of India (as Judge, Kerala High Court, Ernakulam, in S.A. 365/79, D.D. 6.6.79) says, “……. Defendant denied having signed the endorsement which necessitated an expert examination by Prof. B.B. Kashyap. The Courts below have considered the evidence carefully and have concurrently found that the case of the defendant cannot be accepted…… (after relying on the expert opinion of Shri Kashyap). I hold that no substantial question of law is involved in the S.A. and hence, I dismiss the same.”
  6. Hon’ble Mr. Justice J.S. Verma, Judge, Supreme Court of India (as Judge, M.P. High Court, Jabalpur, with Hon’ble Mr. Justice K.N. Shukla, J., in D.B. case no. F.A. 36/78, D.D. 8.2.1980) says, “……. The entire claim decree has been fully proved by the plaintiff. The decree passed by the trial Court be and is hereby confirmed and first appeal is dismissed.”
    Note: P.W. Prof. B.B. Kashyap appeared in the trial Court who opined that disputed signatures were written by the defendant himself & the learned trial court after accepting the expert opinion of Shri B.B. Kashyap decreed the suit of the plaintiff.
  7. Hon’ble Mr. Justice K. Ramaswamy, Judge, Supreme Court of India (as Judge, A.P. High Court, Hyderabad, in A.S. 1964/80, D.D. 27.08.1987) says, “………. The court below held that though the signature of the first respondent in Ex. A1 is of him (as opined by Prof. B. B. Kashyap) but he did not execute the same in the manner spoken to by the appellant and there are suspicious circumstances in bringing about Ex. A1….. On a close reading of Ex. A1 it appeared to be a fabricated one and accordingly the learned trial court dismissed the suit. The learned trial court was well justified in refusing to enforce the alleged contract Ex. A1. The appeal is dismissed.”

  8. Hon’ble Mr. Justice N. L. Untwalia Judge, Supreme Court of India (As chief Justice Patna High court sitting with Hon’ble Mr. S.K. Jha, Judge in L.P.A. No. 25 of 1968, D.D. 21/09/1973) says…. “The learned single judge rightly held that the first appellant court justified in holding that the two documents were not forged (after relying on the expert report of Prof. B.B. Kashyap)…. Letters patent Appeals are dismissed……
    NOTE: This case went in Supreme Court also but the Petition for special leave to Appeal was rejected”.
  9. Hon’ble Mr. Justice S.K. Verma, Chief Justice, Allahabad, High Court, Lucknow Bench, (as J.), C.R. 112/66 (D.D. 28/11/1971) says…. “There in no ground for interference in this revision. Application is dismissed with costs. (Note:- Both the learned courts below had accepted the expert opinion of Shri B.B. Kashyap).
  10. Hon’ble Mr. Justice D. Pathak, Justice of Orrisa High Court, Cuttack, (As C.J. of Gauhati H.C.), says…… “I am really deeply and sincerely impressed by the profound knowledge and learning in varied subjects of Prof. B. B. Kashyap”.
  11. Hon’ble Mr. Justice A. Raghuvir, Chief Justice, Guwahati High Court and Hon’ble Mr. Justice J.M. Srivastava J., in D.BF.A. 51/1978 (D.D. 27/06/1989) say….. “The suit of the plaintiff for ejectment of the defd. was dismissed by the learned Dist. Judge Jorhat. It is significant that the plaintiff has not produced any reliable evidence at all…..We therefore, hold that the defendant not having committed any default was not liable to ejectment. The plaintiff’s suit for ejectment was rightly dismissed by the learned trial court (after accepting the expert opinion of Prof. B.B. Kashyap). Plaintiff’s appeal is dismissed”.
  12. Hon’ble Mr. Justice D. Pathak, Chief Justice, Guwahati High Court, says….. “I am deeply and sincerely impressed by the profound knowledge and learning in varied subjects of Prof. B.B. Kashyap……”
  13. Hon’ble Mr. Justice Obul Reddy, Chief Justice, A.P. High Court, At Hyderabad, in C.R. No. 1397/67, AS J. (decided on 27/10/1967), says,….. “The fingerprint expert (prof. B.B. Kashyap) opined that the thumb impression on Ex. A1 is not the thumb impression of the defendant. It is for that reason that the Dist. Munsif did not attach any importance to the testimony of PWs 1,2 & 3. He has rightly held that the suit promissory note is forged on and dismissed the claim of the petitioner. I see no grounds for admitting this revision. Revision is dismissed”.
  14. The Hon’ble Mr. Justice D.M. Bhandari, Chief Justice, and the Hon’ble Mr. Justice B.P. Beri, Judge, Rajasthan High Court, in D.B. Cr. Murder Reference No. 6/63 say….. “the prosecution produced Ex. P. 4, a letter, alleged to have been written by the appellant…… The appellant denied to have written this letter and prosecution proved it by producing the handwriting expert Mr. B.B. Kashyap, P.W. 5, who compared Ex. P. 4 with the specimen writings taken in the court….. The letter Ex. P. 4 has been held…..to be written by the appellant on the evidence of the handwriting expert (Shri Brij Bhushan Kashyap)….It has been established beyond any manner of doubt that it was appellant and the appellant only who had stabbed Lalchand…. Reference is rejected”.
  15. The Hon’ble Sri S.K. Prasad, Chief Justice of Sikkim Highcourt at Gangtok, says, “the report of Sri Brij Bhushan Kashyap was based on highly convincing and detailed scientific reasons…..During my 30 years experience as a Judicial Officer of Bihar numerous Document Experts from almost all parts of India have appeared before me, and I can unhesitatingly say that among all the experts Sri. Kashyap has impressed me most….I have found in Sri B.B. Kashyap, a rare combination of honesty, integrity, ability and efficiency”.
  16. The Hon’ble Mr. Justice J.S. Ranawat, Chief Justice; and Hon’ble Mr. Justice P.N. Shinghal, Judge, Rajasthan High court, in D.B. Confirmation (Death) case—Premla Vs. State, say….. “The signature of the appellant were sent to an expert Mr. Brij Bhushan Kashyap, PW 17 for comparison…..The opinion of Kashyap the handwriting expert, is that the entry in Ex. P 10A, is in the handwriting of the same person who wrote, the signature on….The handwriting expert supports the evidence that the entry Ex. P 10A was made by the appellant in his register at the time the appellant made the sale of the stolen property to him…..We think an irresistible inference is raised against the appellant of his committing the murder of Mst. Kesar by strangulation and of stealing her gold and silver ornaments from her person….The appellant is a boy of 22 years only…..the sentence  of death is altered to that of life imprisonment….Leave to appeal to Supreme Court is refused….”
  17. The Hon’ble Mr. Justice I.N. Modi Ex-Acting Chief Justice, Rajasthan High court, says…. “It has given me great satisfaction to know that Sri. Brij Bhushan Kashyap, the well known document expert of Rajasthan, recently went on a foreign tour during the course of which he visited a number of countries in Europe, Africa and West Asia and gave an extremely good account of himself.  During the course of this tour, it appears that Sri Kashyap earned high appreciation for his knowledge and proficiency in his own line.  The impression which Sri Kashyap created on the experts aboard is eloquently reflected in his appointment as an Honorary Professor of the French Association of Technical Examiners of Questioned Documents in Paris.  I have no doubt that the unique opportunity which Sri Kashyap has had of visiting so many countries and rubbing shoulders with famous experts in the art and science of reading questioned documents should have proved extremely educative and has been a source of creating a bond of goodwill and mutual understanding between India and the various foreign countries which he found it possible to visit…”   (Add to banner)
  18. The Hon’ble Mr. Justice I.N. Modi, Acting Chief Justice, Rajasthan High court, in S.B.C. Cr. A. No. 114/1964, says,…. “P.W. 3, is Brij Bhshan Kashyap, a handwriting expert, who has deposed that the envelope Ex. P.1 had been written in the same handwriting as the specimen and admitted writings of the accused……The most important factor in the whole case which seems to my mind to clinch the issue is that the envelope Ex. P.1 bore the address of the addressee and the sender in the hand of the accused himself.  There is the evidence of P.W. 3, the handwriting expert Sri Brij Bhushan Kashyap to prove this.  There is incontrovertible evidence on the record which I see no reason to doubt or dispute. …”
  19. The Hon’ble Mr. Justice Sohan Nath Modi, Judge, Rajasthan High court, (as Sessions Judge, Jaipur City, in Espionage Case 1/67) says…. “The reasons given by P.W. 48, B.B. Kashyap, Handwriting expert, for his opinion appear to be cogent and sound…..”
  20. Hon’ble Mr. Justice V.D. Bharagava, Judge, Supreme Court of India (As J. Allahabad High court, Allahabad, in S.A. 714/1957 DD 22/04/1957) says…. “The first court (trial court) dismissed the plaintiff’s suit (rejecting the expert opinion of Shri B.B. Kashyap).  The first appellate court reversed the judgment of the lower court (and accepted the expert opinion of Shri B.B. Kashyap).  Both are findings of fact and are binding upon me in second appeal.  There is no question of law arising in this appeal.  It is accordingly dismissed.  (add to banner)
  21. Hon’ble Mr. Justice Jagdish Sahai, Acting Chief Justice, Allahabad High court, Allahabad (As J., in Cr. A. 159/1955 D.D. 05/03/1957) says…. “In the opinion of D.W. 1 Shri B.B. Kashyap Q-1 and Q-2 are not in the handwriting of the person whose signatures are S-1 to S-10.  I find nothing in the cross-examination to discredit the testimony of this witness.  I cannot agree with the learned Sessions Judge in his conclusions in respect of the evidence of DW 1, Brij Bhushan Kashyap.  In my opinion there is nothing in the cross-examination of this witness to support the view of the learned Sessions Judge.  He has relied upon certain observations in the report of the expert without the expert statement of D.W. 1, Shri Brij Bhushan Kashyap and in my opinion his evidence establishes that the words ‘Ram Prakash’ and ‘Ram Prasad’ on Ex. P11 and P12 are not in the handwriting of the appellant.  I, therefore, allow the appeal set aside the conviction and sentence passed against the appellant and acquit him…”
  22. Hon’ble Mr. Justice S.K. Verma, Chief Justice, Allahabad High court (as J.) in Cr. A. No. 1817/59 (D.D. 09/08/1960) says…. “On behalf of the accused Om Prakash a handwriting expert Sh. B.B. Kashyap, D.W. 1 has been examined.  There is no evidence to show that on Om Prakash was in any way connected with the forgery of the sale notes (as opined by Shri Kashyap).  I find that there is not an iota of evidence of Cr. Conspiracy.  The prosecution evidence is thoroughly unsatisfactory.  It is clear that the conviction of the appellants is incorrect and it must be set aside.  I allow the appeals and set aside the conviction and sentences of the appellants and acquit them…”
  23. Hon’ble Mr. Justice Mitthan Lal, Judge, Allahabad High court in C.R. 60/60 (D.D. 31/01/1962) says… “Ex. A1 filed on behalf of the defendant Babu Lal has been held to be a forged document by both the learned courts below which decreed the suit of the opposite parties against Babu Lal (relying on the expert opinion of P.W. Sh. B.B. Kashyap in preference to the expert opinion of D.W. Shri G.S. Mummick document expert of Delhi)… in the grounds of appeal the finding of the learned Munsiff about the document being forged was not challenged….In appeal this finding of the trial court remained intact.  An application was made on behalf of the plaintiff opposite parties, requesting the Munsiff court to take action against the present applicant Babu Lal, under section 479-A Cr. P.C. A prayer for prosecution finding as required by section 479 (1) while dealing with the judgment.  The appellate court, too while delivering the judgment of appeal did not pass any order for prosecution of the present applicant….during the pendency of the appeal an order on the aforesaid application of the opposite parties was passed U/S 476 and a complaint was ordered to be filed.  A separate appeal against this order was filed which has been dismissed by the learned District Judge, Aligarh…..where both the learned courts have found that having regard to the gravity of the offence the interests of justice did require that prosecution should be launched it could not be said that the discretion vested in the courts below had been exercised arbitrarily.  A revisional court would in such a case, be very reluctant to interfere with the concurrent findings of the courts below as to the expediency of launching the prosecution.  The revision must fail and it is hereby dismissed with costs….”
    Supreme court of Nepal Judgment

  1. Hon’ble Mr. Justice Bhagwati Prasad Singh, Chief Justice, and Hon’ble Mr. Justice Mehendra Bahadur Meht Chhatri, Judge, Supreme Court of Nepal, at Kathmandu, in D. B. Case : Gokal Bahadur Vs. Gayaneshwar, say (English translation extract from the judgment in Napali). On the request of the appellant himself, the documents were further examined by Shri Brij Bhushan Kashyap, who also testified that the disputed signatures were that of the appellant. Having considered the whole evidence on record, the judgments of the lower courts and now the impartial opinion of the foreign expert Shri Kashyap, we hold that all the allegations in the complaint were wrong and therefore, the appeal is dismissed……..”
Note: The Information regarding the Court judgments (Sr. Nos. 1 to 18) has been obtained from the bulletins edited by Sh. B.B. Kashyap, Handwriting Expert, Jaipur.